Friday, November 9, 2007

Traditional Vietnamese Breakfast Dishes


When you're talking about breakfast in Vietnam, you're probably talking about one of three things: pho, sticky rice or some sort of French bread.

Pho (pronounced "fuh") is soup with rice or wheat based noodles that's flavored with a meat such as chicken, pork or beef. Fresh ingredients are added to the soup or act as a topping for the soup. These ingredients may include any combination of the following: preserved cabbage, chopped chilies, roasted peanuts, shallots, bean sprouts, cilantro, basil, lime, Vietnamese parsley and garlic. A fish or chile sauce is almost always served with the soup. Pho makes occasional appearances at other meals as a starter course.

In many rural areas, sticky rice or xoi rules the breakfast table. Often the rice is steamed with brown sugar and mung beans. The rice is then wrapped in coconut or bamboo leaves.

In the late 1800's, the French took over every Vietnamese city they could get their wily hands on. The result of decades of French rule - as it applies to breakfast - is the abundance of French-influenced breads that are still widely consumed in Vietnam. French bread is available in most restaurants. It's common in metropolitan areas to see women carrying burlap bags full of baguettes on their heads to sell on the street. It's even easy to find a good crepe in fancier restaurants.

Fruit is often served as or with breakfast. Mango and dragon fruit - a unique regional fruit from the cactus family - are particularly prevalent.

Beef noodle soup (pho bo)
Makes 8 satisfying bowls


For the broth:
2 medium yellow onions (about 1 pound total)
4-inch piece ginger (about 4 ounces)
5-6 pounds beef soup bones (marrow and knuckle bones)
5 star anise (40 star points total)
6 whole cloves
3-inch cinnamon stick
1 pound piece of beef chuck, rump, brisket or cross rib roast, cut into 2-by-4-inch pieces (weight after trimming)
1 1/2 tablespoons salt
4 tablespoons fish sauce
1 ounce (1-inch chunk) yellow rock sugar (duong phen; see Note)


For the bowls:
1 1/2-2 pounds small (1/8-inch wide) dried or fresh banh pho noodles ("rice sticks'' or Thai chantaboon)
1/2 pound raw eye of round, sirloin, London broil or tri-tip steak, thinly sliced across the grain (1/16 inch thick; freeze for 15 minutes to make it easier to slice)
1 medium yellow onion, sliced paper-thin, left to soak for 30 minutes in a bowl of cold water
3 or 4 scallions, green part only, cut into thin rings
1/3 cup chopped cilantro (ngo)
Ground black pepper


Optional garnishes arranged on a plate and placed at the table:
Sprigs of spearmint (hung lui) and Asian/Thai basil (hung que)
Leaves of thorny cilantro (ngo gai)
Bean sprouts (about 1/2 pound)
Red hot chiles (such as Thai bird or dragon), thinly sliced
Lime wedges


Prepare the broth:

Char onion and ginger. Use an open flame on grill or gas stove. Place onions and ginger on cooking grate and let skin burn. (If using stove, turn on exhaust fan and open a window.) After about 15 minutes, they will soften and become sweetly fragrant. Use tongs to occasionally rotate them and to grab and discard any flyaway onion skin. You do not have to blacken entire surface, just enough to slightly cook onion and ginger.


Let cool. Under warm water, remove charred onion skin; trim and discard blackened parts of root or stem ends. If ginger skin is puckered and blistered, smash ginger with flat side of knife to loosen flesh from skin. Otherwise, use sharp paring knife to remove skin, running ginger under warm water to wash off blackened bits. Set aside.


Parboil bones. Place bones in stockpot (minimum 12-quart capacity) and cover with cold water. Over high heat, bring to boil. Boil vigorously 2 to 3 minutes to allow impurities to be released. Dump bones and water into sink and rinse bones with warm water. Quickly scrub stockpot to remove any residue. Return bones to pot.


Simmer broth. Add 6 quarts water to pot, bring to boil over high heat, then lower flame to gently simmer. Use ladle to skim any scum that rises to surface. Add remaining broth ingredients and cook 1 1/2 hours. Boneless meat should be slightly chewy but not tough. When it is cooked to your liking, remove it and place in bowl of cold water for 10 minutes; this prevents the meat from drying up and turning dark as it cools. Drain the meat; cool, then refrigerate. Allow broth to continue cooking; in total, the broth should simmer 3 hours.


Strain broth through fine strainer. If desired, remove any bits of gelatinous tendon from bones to add to your pho bowl. Store tendon with cooked beef. Discard solids.


Use ladle to skim as much fat from top of broth as you like. (Cool it and refrigerate it overnight to make this task easier; reheat befofe continuing.) Taste and adjust flavor with additional salt, fish sauce and yellow rock sugar. The broth should taste slightly too strong because the noodles and other ingredients are not salted. (If you've gone too far, add water to dilute.) Makes about 4 quarts.


Assemble bowls: The key is to be organized and have everything ready to go. Thinly slice cooked meat. For best results, make sure it's cold.


Heat broth and ready noodles. To ensure good timing, reheat broth over medium flame as you're assembling bowls. If you're using dried noodles, cover with hot tap water and soak 15-20 minutes, until softened and opaque white. Drain in colander. For fresh rice noodles, just untangle and briefly rinse in a colander with cold water.


Blanch noodles. Fill 3- or 4-quart saucepan with water and bring to boil. For each bowl, use long-handle strainer to blanch a portion of noodles. As soon as noodles have collapsed and lost their stiffness (10-20 seconds), pull strainer from water, letting water drain back into saucepan. Empty noodles into bowls. Noodles should occupy 1/4 to 1/3 of bowl; the latter is for noodle lovers, while the former is for those who prize broth.
If desired, after blanching noodles, blanch bean sprouts for 30 seconds in same saucepan. They should slightly wilt but retain some crunch. Drain and add to the garnish plate.


Add other ingredients. Place slices of cooked meat, raw meat and tendon (if using) atop noodles. (If your cooked meat is not at room temperature, blanch slices for few seconds in hot water from above.) Garnish with onion, scallion and chopped cilantro. Finish with black pepper.

Ladle in broth and serve. Bring broth to rolling boil. Check seasoning. Ladle broth into each bowl, distributing hot liquid evenly so as to cook raw beef and warm other ingredients. Serve with garnish plate.


Note: Yellow rock sugar (a.k.a. lump sugar) is sold in one-pound boxes at Chinese and Southeast Asian markets. Break up large chunks with hammer.


Variations: If you want to replicate the splendorous options available at pho shops, head to the butcher counter at a Vietnamese or Chinese market. There you'll find white cords of gan (beef tendon) and thin pieces of nam (outside flank, not flank steak). While tendon requires no preparation prior to cooking, nam should be rolled and tied with string for easy handling. Simmer it and the beef tendon in the cooking broth for two hours, or until chewy-tender.

Peanut Sticky Rice

2 cups glutinous rice (sometimes sold as sweet or sticky rice; other rices won't work for this dish)
1 cup raw peanuts
1 cup water
1/2 cup coconut milk
1 Tablespoon oil
1/2 teaspoon salt


For topping:
1/2 cup shredded coconut
2 Tablespoons crushed roasted peanuts
2 Tablespoons sesame seeds
sugar - to taste
In separate pans, soak the raw peanuts and rice overnight in warm water. Drain both in the morning.

In a large sauce pan, combine 1 cup of water and the coconut milk with the rice, peanuts, oil and salt. Bring mixture to a rolling boil. Immedietly reduce heat to low and stir. Cover and continue to cook on low for 20 minutes until all liquid is absorbed - stirring occasionally.

Fluff rice once with a fork before serving.

Place equal amounts of rice in four serving bowls. Top with shredded coconut, peanut pieces, sesame seeds and sugar.


In Vietnam, this dish is very popular for breakfast in rural areas where the finished rice is often wrapped in coconut or bamboo leaves.